Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus that was first recognized in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through an association that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in people in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Outbreaks of Zika virus illness have been recorded in Africa, America, Asia and the Pacific. From the 1960s to 1980s, human infections have been discovered throughout Africa and Asia, usually accompanied by mild sickness. The first massive outbreak of illness attributable to Zika an infection had reported from the Federated States of Micronesia in 2007. In July 2015, Brazil reported the affiliation between Zika and Guillain-Barré syndrome. In October 2015 Brazil also reported an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly.
- Zika virus syndrome is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes.
- People with Zika virus infection can have symptoms together with mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint ache, malaise or a headache. These signs normally last for 2-7 days.
- There is the scientific consensus that Zika is an explanation for microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Links to different neurological issues are additionally being investigated.
The incubation interval (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease should not be clear, however, is more likely to be just a few days. The signs are much like different arbovirus infections corresponding to dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint ache, malaise, and headache. These Zika virus symptoms are often mild and last for 2-7 days.
Complications of Zika virus disease:
Based on a scientific evaluation of the literature as much as 30 May 2016, WHO has concluded that Zika virus during pregnancy is an explanation for congenital mind abnormalities, together with microcephaly; and that Zika virus is a set off of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Intense efforts are persevering with to analyze the hyperlink between Zika virus and a variety of neurological problems, inside a rigorous analysis framework.
Zika virus is primarily transmitted to folks through the bite of a contaminated mosquito from the Aedes genus, largely Aedes aegypti in tropical areas. Aedes mosquitoes often bite through the day, peaking throughout the early morning and late night. This is the same mosquito that transfers chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever. Sexual transmission of Zika virus can also be possible. Other modes of transmission corresponding to blood transfusion are being investigated.
Infection with Zika virus could also be suspected primarily based on signs and recent records of travel (e.g. residence in or travel to space with active Zika virus transmission). An analysis of Zika virus infection can solely be confirmed by way of laboratory exams on blood or different body fluids, corresponding to urine, saliva or semen.
Zika infection is often mild and requires no particular treatment. People sick with Zika virus should get maximum relaxation, drink adequate fluids, and treat ache and fever with common medicines. If signs worsen, they should need medical care and advice. There is directly no vaccine out there for Zika virus.
Protection towards mosquito bites is an essential measure to forestall Zika virus infection. This will be done by sporting garments (ideally light-coloured) that covered the body as much as possible; utilizing physical barriers corresponding to window screens or closing doors and home windows; sleeping below mosquito meshes, and using insect repellent containing DEET. Special consideration and aid must be given to those that could not have the ability to defend themselves adequately, corresponding to younger kids, the sick or aged. Travelers and people residing in affected areas should take the core precautions described above to save yourselves against mosquito bites.
It is important to cover, empty or clear potential mosquito breeding sites in and around homes such as drums, buckets, pots, gutters, and used old tyres. Communities should support constitutional authorities efforts to reduce mosquitoes of their locality. Health officials may additionally advise that spraying of pesticides be carried out.
The ways of sexual activity might transmit Zika. This is of concern because of a connection between Zika virus infection and opposed being pregnant and fetal outcomes.
For areas with active transmission of Zika virus, all folks with Zika virus infection and their sexual companions (significantly pregnant ladies) should receive details about the dangers of sexual transmission of Zika virus. WHO recommends that sexually active women and men be accurately counseled and provided a full range of preventive strategies to have the ability to make an informed choice about whether or not and when to change into pregnant to prevent adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Women who’ve had unprotected intercourse and don’t wish to get pregnant because of concerns about Zika virus disease should have ready access to emergency contraceptive providers and counseling. Pregnant ladies should practice safer intercourse (together with the appropriate and constant use of condoms) or stop sexual activity for at least the whole duration of pregnancy.
For areas with no active transmission of Zika virus, WHO recommends practicing safer intercourse or abstinence for an interval of six months for women and men who’re coming back from areas of active transmission to prevent Zika virus infection by way of sexual activity. Intimate companions of pregnant ladies, residing in or returning from areas the place native transmission of Zika virus happens should practice safer intercourse or abstain from sexual activity all through the being pregnant.